Prostate Cancer

What is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer, as the name suggests, is cancer in the prostate gland in males. This gland is only found in males. This organ is located below the urinary bladder & in front of the rectum, the end of the large intestine. Seminal vesicles producing semen are present behind the prostate gland. The urethra, the tube carrying urine & semen out of the body via the penis passes through the middle of the prostate gland.

It is a walnut-sized gland whose size changes as men age. The prostate gland may be seen in larger shapes in adult men. After skin cancer, prostate cancer is commonly found in men. It has the property of growing slowly & it does not cause any severe harm to men. Some prostate cancer growing extremely slow may or may not require any treatment while the aggressively spreading one may need immediate attention.

Prostate Cancer Symptoms

When a man is suffering from prostate cancer’s initial stage, he may not identify it at all. When the condition advances, some of the following symptoms may be noticed:

  • Problem in Urination
  • Reduced urinating force
  • Bleeding in urine
  • Bleeding in semen
  • Pain in the bones
  • Sudden & excessive weight loss
  • Erectile dysfunction

Prostate Cancer Causes & Risk Factors

Usually, the causes of Prostate cancer are unknown. However, some risk factors have been determined & assumed to be causing prostate cells to become cancer cells.

The changes in the DNA of normal prostate cells lead to prostate cancer. Several genes affect our body as we grow, while some are tumor suppressor genes. The abnormalities happening with the DNA trigger cancer cells that spread within & across the prostate gland.

We can identify some risk factors of prostate cancer as follows:

  • Aging: Old age men have more chances of suffering from prostate cancer as compared to younger men. Most men aging above 50 have more chances of suffering.
  • Race: Black people are more likely to suffer from prostate cancer for undetermined reasons yet. It is also believed that black people have a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer.
  • Family history: If any of your blood relatives like your parent, sibling, or child has a history of prostate cancer, your risk is increased too. In case, if your family history also includes breast cancer, you also have chances of having prostate cancer.
  • Obesity: Obese or overweight men have higher risks of suffering from prostate cancer. However, we cannot say that only obese men can suffer from this disease. Studies have shown mixed results.

Prostate Cancer Treatment

The treatment choices for prostate cancer are categorized into three main types:

  1. Prostate Cancer Surveillance
  • Active Surveillance
  • Watchful Waiting
  1. Localized Therapy
  • Surgery
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Cryotherapy
  • Focal Therapy
  1. Systematic Therapy
  • Hormonal Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Immunotherapy

Types of Prostate Cancer

Any type of prostate cancer is usually categorized as adenocarcinomas. The cancer cells emerge from the gland cells themselves. These are the same cells that produce fluid added to the semen.

Some rare types of prostate cancer are:

  • Sarcomas
  • Neuroendocrine tumors
  • Small cell carcinomas
  • Transitional cell carcinomas

Diagnosing prostate cancer

Diagnosis of prostate cancer is carried out via certain tests. Here they are:

  • Prostate-specific Antigen Blood Test PSA Test
  • Digital Rectal Examination

These tests are often referred to as screening in technical terms. They are used for determining prostate cancer before it spreads to other body parts. Additionally, Prostate Cancer Biopsy may be conducted if your medical practitioner finds it ideal as per your conditions.

Prostate Cancer Prevention

You can always adopt prevention measures for prostate cancer & they are as follows:

  • Switch to a healthy diet that includes a lot of fruits and vegetables
  • Avoid supplements. Go for healthy & nutrient-rich food instead
  • Keep yourself active & fit by exercising regularly
  • Make sure you’re maintaining a healthy weight as per your age & body type
  • Feel free to consult your doctor if you have any queries regarding prostate cancer